4 Battles that changed the course of history!

Battle | History | 26th August 2021 | Virtual Wire

 
Some battles were turning points, not only in war, but in history itself, and we still talk about them today. These battles forged our future and set us to move all the events we have today.

Here is a list of lesser-known battles that had the greatest impact on our history that the western media often omits!


1. Siege of Jerusalem (636-637)

The Muslim conquest of the Levant included the siege of Jerusalem (636–637), which was the consequence of the Rashidun Caliphate's military efforts against the Byzantine Empire in the years 636–637/38. The siege of Jerusalem began in November 636, when the Rashidun army, led by Abu Ubaidah, attacked the city.


The Patriarch Sophronius consented to surrender after six months on the condition that he only submits to the Caliph. According to legend, Caliph Umar personally travelled to Jerusalem in 637 or 638 to accept the city's capitulation. As a result, the Patriarch surrendered to him. The conquest of the city by Muslims cemented Arab dominance of Palestine, which would not be threatened again until 1099.



2. Battle of Hattin (1187)

On July 4, 1187, the Crusader states of the Levant fought the forces of the Ayyubid king Saladin in the Battle of. Due to the shape of the neighbouring extinct volcano Kurûn Hattîn, it is also known as the Battle of the Horns of Hattin. Saladin's Muslim army captured or murdered the great bulk of Crusader forces, effectively eliminating their ability to fight the war.


As a direct result of the battle, Muslims once again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, re-conquering Jerusalem and many of the other Crusader-held cities. According to the chronicler Ernoul, Pope Urban III died of shock after hearing of the defeat sent to Rome by Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre. Within days of Urban's accession, Pope Gregory VIII published the bull Audita tremendous, calling for a new crusade. The Saladin tithe was instituted in England and France to gather finances for the new crusade.



3. Mongol defeat by India (1306)

In 1306, the Chagatai Khanate ruler Duwa sent an expedition to India, to avenge the Mongol defeat in 1305. The invading army included three contingents led by Kopek, Iqbalmand, and Tai-Bu. To check the invaders' advance, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji dispatched an army led by Malik Kafur and supported by other generals such as Malik Tughluq.


The Delhi army achieved a decisive victory, killing tens of thousands of the invaders. The Mongol captives were brought to Delhi, where they were either killed or sold into slavery. After this defeat, the Mongols did not invade the Delhi Sultanate during Alauddin's reign. The victory greatly emboldened Alauddin's general Tughluq, who launched several punitive raids in the Mongol territories of present-day Afghanistan.



4. US defeat by Vietnam. (1955-1975)

Vietnam is also known as the Second Indochina War was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam.


North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand, and other anti-communist allies.


The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some, lasted almost 20 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist in 1975. The war is considered a massive defeat for the United States.





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