Aral Sea: What is Happening?

The Aral Sea | 18th January 2022 | Virtual Wire



What does the word Aral even mean? What is so important about it that we need to be concerned?

In the Turkic languages, the definition of Aral can be understood as “island”. The Aral Sea, technically a lake, is situated between Kazakhstan in the north and Uzbekistan in the south. Formerly known as the fourth largest lake in the world, the Aral Sea has begun shrinking starting from the 1960s and almost completely dried up when we came to the 2010s. The main reason behind the shrinkage of this once magnificent lake was the Soviet irrigation program of cotton and wheat, which diverted the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers that were feeding the Aral Sea. This unsustainable management of water resource usage led the lake to be one-tenth of its original size today according to the estimation of the geologists.


The shrinkage has been well documented ever since the 1960s. And of course, with this dramatic change came a plethora of environmental and economic crises which shook the region to its core. Change the life of the occupants in a deprecating way. The bed the lake once resided in is now a seemingly endless salt flat permeated with pesticides. Local people are suffering significantly greater incidence of chronic disease, and a few years ago it was reported that in Karakalpakstan -an autonomous region in Uzbekistan- the toxicity of the environment was to point where the breast milk of mothers has been contaminated, thus, resulting in one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world.

The population experiences sand and dust storms for the duration of three months of the year. Severely impacting the quality of life and health of the inhabitants. This negative development also impacted the economic activities of the Aral region natives. How could it not? Many of the fish species disappeared from the ecosystem of the lake, and a once-lucrative fishing industry, that employed an immense number of ships, has collapsed. Many of the old ships can be seen today sitting at the base of the previously lake grounds. But what can be done?

Regional cooperation is crucial to address these issues, and Central Asian countries should unite in their efforts between governments, NGOs, local communities, and donors, and take significant steps to restore the ecosystem,” says Vadim Sokolov, Head of the Department for Project Implementation of the Aral Sea Basin under the Uzbekistan Executive Directorate of IFAS. Like many sustainability issues, we as an individual can do so

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much. The biggest responsibility falls in the hands of the local governments and international organizations as well as big cooperation that once contributed to this.

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