Cosmetic Technologies | Studies | 17th December 2022 | Virtual Wire
Health is a word which is nowadays one of the most important words that belong to almost every individual in every aspect of life.
Actually more than a word it is a condition or a situation which needs to be considered very carefully. The continuous evolution of various health-related products, medicines, and equipment has made life healthier. Since the beginning of the human era, when the ancient peoples were following the rule of Darwin which was 'survival of the fittest’ indirectly, and were using different natural substances for their growth and maintenance, they realised the therapeutic properties of various substances and also the sum of their additional effects. These additional effects when looked out with primary focus, it was observed that they were enhancing someone's appearance and innovations happening over the centuries led to the creation of ‘cosmetics’.
Cosmetic technologies or simply cosmetics are that part of Pharmaceutical sciences which is one of the biggest areas in which continuous work is going on. Cosmetics are those type of Pharmaceutical substances that helps to enhance or alter the appearance of an individual when applied or consumed. In simpler terms, these are the substances are products which are used to increase the beauty of an individual along with taking care of their body parts as well. The primary concern of various pharmaceutical companies towards creating cosmetics is that it should create a sense of happiness on the faces of people after getting rid of their minor issues and also receive opposite additional effects which improve their beauty and appearance so as they can look more attractive.
Creating cosmetics for everyone's personal use was a big approach by every industry from the past 5 to 6 decades or it would be not wrong to say that it was an optimistic view and approach to creating only those preparations which are meant to alter and enhance the appearance. New ideologies of different personalities gave the industries to expand their imaginations and work in a broader way. Some great ideologies also provided the information that cosmetics should not only get limited to the face, it also needs to work on other body parts as well because later they realised that every body part needs special attention and specific care as well. This thought led to the manufacturing of different formulations with almost every type of dosage form like solids, liquids, semi is solids and aerosols. The wonderful part of cosmetics is that it comes for almost every age group persons changing from infants to old age peopleand also for both the sexes. Another advantage of using cosmetics is that the people and can be used by anyone and don’t need medical expert supervision. Generally, these cosmetic products are not available for oral administration i.e. they are not eatables and mostly all of them are available only for topical route of drug administration.
Various Types of Formulations
When we talk about cosmetics, we get multiple options and a large variety of products from various brands. Depending upon the situation and various factors peoples purchase these cosmetics according to their needs and want. Sometimes it also happens when two types of cosmetics perform the same actions, the customer usually purchases that product which comes under a cheaper price rate and also lasts for a longer period of time. There is a large variety of cosmetics which come under different categories of dosage forms which are as follows:
Solid Dosage Form Cosmetic
The solid dosage from cosmetics is one of those kinds of categories which has uplifted the market from very old times. These solid cosmetics don’t contain a large variety of products and generally, powders fall into this category but have multiple types of formulations like talcum powder, baby powder, compact powder, facial powder, dental powder, cooling powder and many more. The primary function of these powders is it helps to lighten the pigments and also to reduce friction whenever the adjacent body parts touch each other and cause a rash due to friction.
The other property of powders is that they can even spread when applied on the skin as their particle size gets reduced so that it can get easily spread up living behind smoother skin. These powders are usually mild and gritty because there are multiple ingredients like preservatives and, perfumed fragrances. Generally, powders and powdered capsules are monophasic i.e. they only have only one phase and you to this their evaluation parameters range is not that wide as compared to other dosage forms of cosmetics. Before going for the manufacturing process the industries consider various things which are mainly known as pre-formulation considerations in which they calculate the exact amount of quality and quantity which the formulation requires.
A Liquid Dosage Form Cosmetic
The liquid dosage form cosmetics are another category of cosmetics which mainly includes those topical preparations which are created in a liquid form. Generally, liquid cosmetics are biphasic i.e. they have two phases which are combined together and mixed vigorously to create one base which could be directly applied to the skin. These liquid cosmetics mainly includes bathing preparations (like body washes, shampoos, conditioners), oils (hair oil, body oil, baby oil, winter oil), lotions and moisturizer which prevents your skin from drying and keeps it hydrated, mouth preparations like mouth wash which makes the mouth germ free and give ta fresh Odour, astringents which are specially designed to treat acne and also there are some liniments and serums.
The biggest advantage of using liquid cosmetics is that they are easy to use and don’t need any medical supervision also they are easily absorbed by the skin through skin pores but still, they should be kept out of reach from young children. Liquid cosmetics generally possess the physical, chemical and biological properties of liquids and sometimes show better results than solid cosmetics. The packaging of liquid cosmetics also differs from product to product and is designed on the basis of some specific parameters and also on marketing requirements. Usually, It is seen that sometimes liquid cosmetics need special preservation as compared to solid cosmetics because in walls addition of water, so there might be a little chance of microbial growth so it is kept in cool and dry places.
Semi-Solid Dosage Forms Cosmetics
Semi-solid cosmetics is the third category of cosmetic preparations which is widely used on a day-to-day basis by almost all age group persons in different forms and also for different purposes. These semi-solid preparations have properties of both solids and liquids but are more of a solid, and that is the reason they are called semi-solid preparations. These preparations are more viscous, thick and rigid than liquids but lesser than solids. Semi-solid cosmetics mainly include creams (night cream, vanishing cream, cold cream, shaving cream, beautifying cream, spermicidal creams etc.), body washes(face wash, beard wash, hair washes), gels and jellies(hair gels, body gels, shower gels, hydrating gel), waxes(hairstyling waxes, hair removal waxes, etc.). The semi-solid preparations are generally packed in tubes and flat containers so that they can be easily popped out or applied through hands. Some semi-solid formulations are used directly on the skin while some formulations need a medium to get completely accessed. For example, some gels are applied directly on the skin but most face washes require some amount of water and then it is ready to use. Just like other preparations, the biggest advantage of semi-solid held preparations is that it does not require expert medical supervision for use They can be held or placed in any direction and they will not come out of the container like solids and liquids. The primary reason behind this ability of semisolids is the use of adhesives and binders which allows the molecules to get completely linked to each other and not allow free movement.
A Gaseous Dosage Form Cosmetic (Aerosols)
This is the last well-known category of cosmetics which is somewhat different from other forms but still is widely used all over the world and has created a really good impact on almost every category of people belonging to different age groups. In some cases, it is also seen that peoples prefer aerosols as compared to other dosages from cosmetics because of some reasons:
Instant and fastest actions.
Easy to use and no need for medical supervision.
No involvement of hands to take and apply (rubbing).
Easy to handle.
Aerosols usually contain sprays which are then classified into gaseous and non-gaseous. Gases aerosols include deodorant body sprays and hair sprays while non-gaseous sprays include perfumed body sprays and mouth sprays(dental sprays and mouth fresheners). Both gaseous and non-gaseous sprays have a similarity and that is they both contain ethanol as their base ingredient and a nozzle in the pressing part which breaks the bigger molecules into minute particles which are completely scattered but the biggest difference between both of them is that gaseous body sprays involves CFCs(chloral flour carbons) with a propellant which initiates and carry forwards the mechanism when shaken at first well the normal sprays just contains a thin tubular straw.
Perfume body sprays and deodorants a widely used because of their fragrance which is the most attractive part of any cosmetic preparation and is the first priority of many customers. A pleasing good smell of perfume or deodorant is due to the natural aroma of various substances. One big difference between perfumes and deodorants is that deodorants usually comes in a metal container made up of aluminium but perfumes are packed in glass containers and this is because deodorants undergo more evaluation parameters like flame test as compared to normal perfumes which do not require this. Another difference between perfume and a gaseous deodorant is that every gaseous deodorant is a body spray product which freshens up the body by blocking the sweat pores for an unlimited period of time but not every perfume is a body spray and is only used for a good fragrance.
New Updates and Trends
This technique or technology is said to be one of the latest development in the field of cosmetics from the last decade. This technology is said to be the perfect combination of pharmaceuticals and computer technology to alter day appearance of a person. Laser technology is used mainly for treating acne and pimples. These lasers are generally monochromatic; which means that they will emit only a light of specific wavelength. The principal behind this technology is called photothermolysis. Photothermolysis basically means that the light is modulated at a specific point to generate heat which will destroy the area which is targeted. The biggest advantage of this technique is that it starts to work instantly and the person doesn't have to wait for a few weeks to get rid of that situation but just like its advantage there is also an address advantage which is it cannot be performed under medical supervision because to work on this technique one should be properly trained to use the apparatus. The other big disadvantage of this procedure is that it is not pocket friendly and can cause more money in comparison to other cosmetic products.
This is one of the latest creations done by pharmaceutical industries and is recently popularised among people because of its good results and easy-to-apply method. Transformer patches are a new development in the field of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals as it consists of some patches vichar made up of polymers one side of the strip contains the formulation and is then applied directly on the skin and then left over tell it gets popped out by self. The biggest advantage of this method is that it does not require complete medical supervision but just needs advice or suggestion from the medical practitioner so that the person what get used to it.
Steam and Spa Therapy
This technology is one of the oldest techniques in which the person is exposed to direct steam and is allowed to leftover for a specific period of time so that the toxins are removed from these sweat glands in the form of sweat but this technology is now again modified in the form of spa therapies in which the steam is used along with some essential oils to attend a level of aromatherapy. In this therapy when the person is directly exposed to hot steam, the skin gets purified as the dirt is removed and then when oil is applied along with massages then it beautifies the appearance up to some more extent. This method is also not pocket friendly and is also performed in a specific place or shop by professionally trained artists.
Summary and Conclusion
After reading this article the readers can conclude that cosmetics play an important role in everyone’s day-to-day life. There are different types of cosmetics available in the market for various purposes and they come in different formulations each designed for specific functions. Cosmetics also boost up the economy to a certain extent as different people of all age groups are now getting used to them. There is also some new technology developed in recent years which also works in a totally different manner but is also really helpful to humanity up to a level. Indian society is also now accepting new technology and implementing them on a large scale so that it would benefit humans as well as animals in different ways.