Perspectives | International War | solutions | 05th November 2022 | Virtual Wire
The international arena is replete with multifarious disputes, conflicts and disagreements, which if sustained over a larger period of time, lead to disastrous outcomes in the form of wars and widespread global disarray.
“What are international wars ?” and “How do they shape up and have a profound impact on international affairs”, are some of the critical questions, which have haunted humanity for decades, more so in the present context of the Russo- Ukrainian War, which has accentuated this concern to an even greater extent. But, before we actually get into its intricacies and the larger causes leading up to the same, it is fitting that we understand precisely, what an international war actually means. According to Emily Crawford, an expert in Public International Law, at Oxford, “ A war or an armed conflict involves armed hostilities, regardless of whether a “state of war”, has been declared or accepted”. Moreover, it could be suggested that “when diplomatic channels cease to be appreciated”, we get a sense of the non-state situation deteriorating into such draconian wars.
Now that the fundamental understanding of war and how it is consciously or even subconsciously orchestrated by state and non-state actors, it is imperative to delve deeper into its actual causes in the larger pretext. Walking through extensive research conducted by eminent scholars on global affairs, it has been brought to notice, that war stems primarily from certain socio-economic and political pitfalls such as opposing interests, disruption in the balance of power, territorial and economic gain, drive for sociocultural hegemony by sustained persecution of minorities, lack of respect for human rights and propensity to exploit coercive channels instead of negotiations, and sometimes even the anarchy in the international framework as argued by neo-realists has accentuated war-like circumstances.
Moreover, intrinsic problems of corruption, poverty and widespread differences if escalated to a global level, could make matters worse. Quite interestingly, we have had a taste of all of these crude instances, self-interest especially in the years during and after the Second World War, leading all the way up to the Cold War and the Gulf War of the 90s, wherein international tensions in a then a bipolar world, were at an all-time high, despite the presence of the esteemed United Nations Organization (UNO). Reflections of self-interest in foreign policy continue even to this day, in the context of the Israeli- Palestine Conflict and the more renowned Ukrainian crisis, which have cast aspersions on the globalised world order, replete with democratic principles. The chief question that now confronts us is “ How could war be avoided to maintain a semblance of order ?”. ⁴ Well essentially, if we are to renounce a disastrous measure as that of war, we have to engage in productive diplomatic practices and promote growing interdependence between nations, by appreciating the relevance of the UN, by targeting it as an organisation of political discourse.
Armed forces — Necessity — Armed conflict, international — Combatants — Targeted killing — Geneva Conventions 1949 — Prisoners of war: https://opil.ouplaw.com (June 2015).
Primary causes of War: https:// owlocation.com> social sciences: Paul Goodman (Jan 2022).
A foreign policy based on national and self-interest: https://yourarticlelibrary.com ( Meaning, and components by author Dinesh Sharma).
Relevance and Role of the UN: https://blog.ipleaders.in ( Published: 1st Feb 2020).
Furthermore, the innate human nature of using force has to be abandoned for better and alternative channels of arbitration of disputes with a sound legal framework has to be strengthened and appreciated at all times. Several experts and psychologists have pointed out that, the state of mindset also plays an important role in causing war. They state that the existence of alliance systems such as NATO and QUAD bear fringes of a “prejudiced mindset”, causing more harm than good, and linked it to major human rights problems. Therefore, they stressed the need to cast aside such narrow practices and focus on a higher degree of transparency, which could ease the situation Towards the very end, I would only claim that war is not the solution to conflicts and instead accentuates the burden of the same. Therefore, it is imperative that we adopt mature international decisions and foreign policy practices through deliberation and diplomacy.